I am a newcomer who has just entered the construction industry. I want to have a planned study. How can I start?

4 thoughts on “I am a newcomer who has just entered the construction industry. I want to have a planned study. How can I start?”

  1. The construction site is "more than 70 % or 80 %, and nine achievements can be a leader." After a few years of construction, I still have some experience.
    This of some of my construction experience with everyone.
    What should the technicians do at the construction site?
    The first paragraphs of college students who are building and civil engineering are applied to our unit. They have a lot of confidence and practical. I told me that many big ideals and ambitions also euphemistically talked about the salary. They: Do your own work. If you want to eat this bowl of rice, you must calm down, look at, ask more, and how long, you can use this experience as a springboard, but you can’t take the job improperly. Essence You do n’t understand, but you do n’t ask if you do n’t understand, do your own claims.
    Is when my technicians should do at the construction site, I told him: putting line, material planning, writing technical intercourse, sampling of raw materials for inspection, on -site quality inspection, filling in hidden information, reinforced material formula lists The review, the inspection of the template size elevation, etc., but at the beginning, just followed the task of completing the leader to complete the mission.
    In first, let's talk about the line. After the full -time surveyor sets the main axis and the control point of the elevation control point, the technicians must master the basic skills of the cable fall. The positioning of the line is much more complicated, and the industrial plant is much more complicated.
    In the size of the line, be sure to put an end to the amount of one foot and one foot (3 meters and 5 meters on the construction site) in a small foot, so as not to accumulate errors. In addition, when the height difference between the two points is large, the general error of the general amount of the two -point height is much small. Remember several points that the teacher talked about during the study measurement: first, then crushed; often reviewed, the next step did not review the next step, the next step cannot be carried out; the measurement must be checked step by step.
    The measuring line is particularly important during construction, and your negligence may cause great economic losses. The measuring line at the construction site is not like measuring the distance between the front ruler, the rear ruler, the reading, and the record at the school at the school. It is not appropriate to call a worker to help. This is not suitable. You cannot ask the project manager to equip you to place enough professionals to accompany you, but you must be cautious and run and go back and forth.
    This on the construction site is generally a technician. If you look at the standard, the ruler may not necessarily be. It should be noted that the front and back of the tower ruler have a great impact on the results of the observation. Non -professional is also difficult to master. If you do not repeat it, it is not surprising that there is a 3 ~ 5 mm at all.
    The another sentence is circulated on the site. Although not completely right, it can be regarded as a magic weapon for measuring the self -protection of the person: "The triangle should be small and the lines should be thick", which means that when the standard is high, the red triangle should not be described as a high red triangle. Too big, the ink line should be thicker when the ink line. Haha, what do you mean to think about it.
    The use of the use of the use of levels, latitude, latitude meter, ink fights, and thread pendants must be proficient.

    If into the material plan, regardless of whether the budget is mentioned, you must do it yourself as a technician. You count the actual amount, do not look at the content of the budget quota. Some of the contents of some quota are not used in actual construction, but some are not enough, such as tile marble. The design has given the size specifications. You can actually arrange the number of half bricks that need to be cut bricks. You can mention the quantity accurately. In this way, when you go to the scene, you will have a bamboo, and you can find the problem at a time.
    The reinforcement design generally uses the 03G101 atlas. The course that has just been studied with reinforced concrete should be faster than others. When raising the reinforced material, pay attention to the amount of steel joints.
    If when setting a concrete mixer by yourself, the cement is generally pre -made by budget. After the concrete cooperation ratio comes out, the sand is adjusted according to the actual amount of each cubic meter. Essence
    The talk about the technical intercourse. Generally speaking, the common problem in the technical intercourse is to copy books, copy the norms, and can guide the construction. My experience is to copy more specifications when the construction process and construction steps are unclear. It can make others say that your confrontation is a dead set, and you can't guide the specific construction, but it is better to let others see that you do n’t understand, you don’t understand, you don’t understand, you don’t understand, you don’t understand, you don’t understand, you don’t understand, you don’t understand, you don’t understand, you don’t understand, you don’t understand. Say you should be strong. Another reason is that the technical intercourse is to be submitted to the work information, so it is absolutely not allowed to violate the norms. After all, some can be done but not written. If you want to improve, you should look at the operation of the workers and see what you did not follow the book. If there is any bad impact on the quality, you must write down to make a summary. Entering the raw material sampling and inspection in some formal units was completed by the testimony of the testimony and the material staff. As a technician, they should also participate. Remember to have been remembered. For example, the selection of the steel bar mechanical performance test parts cannot be intercepted from the reinforced end. Generally, it is necessary to intercept about 1 meter before taking it. Pay attention to the purpose of on -site sampling and re -inspection is random sampling so that each group of test parts can be truly universal and representative. If the steel supply channel has a reliable guarantee, and the long -term cooperation is highly credible, you can also take the steel bars of the specifications on one steel bars once at one time. After all, when the steel bars are provided, the joints will increase the joints, causing the material waste. But remember what should be compatible with standards and standards, no matter how harmonious your relationship is in the face of the owner and supervision, you can never tell the truth when you do not follow the chapters. Of course, for new technicians, it is best to strictly follow the requirements of norms to do it. The first advantage is that it is always good to give others a serious impression.
    This sampling must be taken from any 10 bags of 10 bags according to the requirements of the specifications. The advantage is to provide the laboratory with the closest real situation, making the issuance more economical and more scientific than the cooperation order.
    The on -site quality inspection, check of template size elevation, etc. It looks simple. In fact, the accumulation of experience is also important. After staying at the scene for a long time, it is the key to what can be. It is important to pre -control in advance. After the facts, it is the most disgusted with the project manager and operator. When you have worked hard for a long time, when reporting the results of the inspection to the leaders and project managers, you often have no good look. You humble a little bit, and you will give you half to death immediately: "What did you do?"
    Milling in the hidden information, including the planning of the construction diary, that is the things you show your talents, do not tell you who should do it, that should not be a technician, you must take every day When others rest, you have to write a day's progress, mechanical operation, personnel arrangements, etc. as a chance to learn. See how others arranged, think about how to deal with something, make less remarks, and try to figure out the techniques of people's deployment personnel and the result of the supervision. It is necessary to establish a foundation for the foundation for independent projects. With complaints, you will see that your hard work and efforts will be seen. Getting the recognition of the leader and the respect of the workers are the first step for your technical staff to work well.
    The sayings I often tell the people below: Don't rush to achieve grades, buried your head to work.
    The review of the reinforced material formation list you must participate. If your unit is used to the method of the reinforced material, you must check it yourself. Heat the reinforced bars on his head in his head to compare the design drawings to see if there is any omissions. If you don't understand, ask him, there is nothing to lose.

    If in order to do a good job, you must first create a good working atmosphere. Let the people around you agree with you, you can lean on the small selling small if necessary.

    The stage of dry technicians is the stage of building a foundation. The acquisition and accumulation of actual experience at the construction site, and the formation of the basic structure of interpersonal relationships, including the establishment of their own style of doing things, is at this stage.
    It construction site will inevitably drink, internal communication requires drinking, and party A supervision should also drink. If you can drink 1 catties, you can only drink half a catty. If you can't drink half a catty Your leader is a colleague, saying that you do n’t drink it when you do n’t drink it, because the construction party is drunk every time you drink.
    This design changes and engineering visa work in construction management are very important. Because of its extensive content, it is complicated, the regularity is poor, and it occurs for a long time. It is difficult to determine its cost. Generally, engineering costs adjusted due to design changes and engineering visas accounted for the proportion of the completion and settlement of the entire unit project, most of which are close to 20 %, and less are about 6 %, especially in technical reform and technical and measure projects. Most of them are more than 20 %, sometimes even 40 %. Therefore, attaching importance to and doing this work is a major event in the construction unit. I think that the meaning and content of design changes and engineering visa is the first major thing, so as not to help.
    The meaning and content of the design change
    The design change is to ensure design and construction quality during the project construction process, and improve engineering design. Correct the design modification of design errors and meet changes in on -site conditions. Generally, the design change notice issued by the original design unit and the design change contact form agreed by the original design unit by the construction unit.

    The design units organized by the construction unit and the design of the construction enterprise to participate in the design of the construction enterprise. After the construction enterprise and the construction unit proposed, the practice of changing the construction drawing of all parties is a design change. For this reason, the new drawing or design changes are responsible for the design unit or construction unit.
    In construction enterprises, during the construction process, encounters some specific situations that were not expected to be designed and needed to be dealt with; therefore, the design changes occurred. For example, during the installation of the project's pipeline installation, the equipment and pipe pier that were not considered in the original design, no installation position at the original design elevation, etc., need to change the direction or elevation of the original design pipeline. Design changes or design change contact forms. Such design changes should indicate the reasons, positions, changes, practices, specifications and quantities of changes, and the changeable construction drawings. After the signed and confirmed, the design change is the design.
    In projects, due to certain needs, the construction unit proposes to change certain construction methods, or increase or decrease certain specific engineering projects, such as After the consent of the design unit, the design changes were made.
    The construction enterprise During the construction process, due to the construction and resource market reasons, such as material supply or construction conditions, it is considered to be replaced by other materials, or the specific design of certain engineering projects is required. Design changes can be used as design changes with the consent of both parties or three parties.

    The meaning and content of the project visa
    The engineering visa during the construction process mainly refers to the construction drawing budget or budget quota in addition to the construction drawing of the construction drawing and design changes. The visa processed by the construction content that does not contain the construction in the construction and actual costs occurs, such as changes in the construction conditions or the situation that cannot be encountered.
    The due to the time and requirements of the construction of materials, venues, equipment materials, etc. due to the time and requirements of the contract, the construction enterprises were suspended and losses of the construction enterprise.
    This Due to the construction of the project, the construction of the project was stopped, or the design changes, or the design error due to design changes, and the rework, the relocation of the personnel and the relocation of the machinery, the relocation of the personnel, and the relocation of the machine.
    The water and power outage caused by the construction unit during the construction process, resulting in the project that cannot be proceeded smoothly, and the time is longer, and the economic losses caused by construction companies cannot arrange stop work.
    In technical and technical reform projects, often encountered during the construction process, due to the too small working surface and more than a certain height of the work surface, resulting in the use of large machinery to ensure the smooth progress of the project. Construction enterprises should timely occur in time when occurred in time. The actual conditions and construction plans were announced by the construction unit, and the construction unit should be implemented after the consent of the construction unit. At this time, the construction enterprise shall apply for an engineering visa.
    The no formal construction drawings for large -scale maintenance projects and sporadic maintenance projects often propose a set of maintenance plans by the construction enterprise before the maintenance. At this time, the engineering visa work is particularly important, which is directly related to the smooth progress of the maintenance and settlement.
    The principle and precautions for designing changes
    The design changes are proposed by the construction party. Essence However, the following principles should be paid to the following principles when submitting negotiations: ① Is it convenient for construction after changing? ② Is the increased cost be acceptable to the construction unit? ③ In order to avoid unnecessary trouble when settlement, try to replace the materials for the material use order of the material as much as possible, and some of the settings of the can be changed with the design of the visa can be changed with the design.
    haha, it's too difficult!

    The causes of general design changes are:
    ① If it is caused by errors or defects of the design department.
    ② If the supervision unit is negligent or wrong in command.
    ③ The quality of the materials supplied by the equipment and material supply units is not qualified.
    ④ caused by the reasons of the construction unit, improper construction or construction error.

    The precautions to apply for engineering visa
    The on -site visa in time. Anyone who involves economic expenses, work, employment visas, and mechanical platform visas, etc., must find the on -site representative to verify the visa as soon as possible. Extension. And report the situation to your leadership immediately.
    The is not suitable for visa, such as bargaining items, materials prices, etc., and if there is no agreed in the contract and the contract shall not be agreed in the contract, the relevant manager shall be agreed in the form of supplementary agreements.

    The measures to strengthen design changes and engineering visa management
    1. Establish a sound management system. Clarify the responsibilities, rights and obligations of relevant personnel such as leadership, construction technology, and settlement. Only by clarifying the responsibility and rights can we standardize the management behavior of engineering managers at all levels in design changes and engineering visas, and improve their enthusiasm for performing their duties.
    2. Establish a contract for the contract. Let everyone participate in the construction project understand the contract and do a good job of the contract. Responsibility for easy use in actual work.
    3, strictly distinguish design changes and engineering visas. According to my country's current regulations, design changes and engineering visa fees are the category of reserve fees, but there are strict differences and division of design changes and engineering visas. If it belongs to the scope of design changes, the design unit shall issue a design change notice. If a project visa is a project visa, the cost of the construction personnel is processed by the cost.
    4, improve the sense of responsibility and business, strictly put the design change and engineering visa.
    The design change and engineering visa are a regular work of construction engineering products in the construction process. Strengthening design changes and visa work is an important task for the cost management of construction units. Essence Work hard, friends.
    Is before the project starts, you need to recognize the map and review it, and then the drawing will be reviewed. If you have the experience of understanding and reviewing the experience, and master some points, you will do more with less. Now talk about my understanding and review experience for reference.
    The procedures for understanding and reviewing are: Familiar with the function of being familiar with the proposed project, familiarity between the planned plane size of the review engineering, and checking the factor in the construction diagram of the facade of the review engineering facade.
    . Familiar with the function of the proposed project
    In drawings, first understand what the function of this project is, is it a workshop or an office building? Is it a shopping mall or a dormitory? After understanding the function, I will associate some basic size and decoration. For example, the toilet floor will generally apply floor tiles and make a wall skirt. The height of the floor and the floor of the toilet and balcony building will generally be a few centimeters lower. Installation needs, etc. Finally, read the architectural description, and be familiar with the project decoration.
    . Familiar and reviewing engineering plane dimensions
    The construction floor plan of construction engineering generally has three sizes. The first size is detailed size, the second size is the size of the axis, and the third size is the total size. Check whether the sum of the first size is equal to the second size and whether the second size is added equivalent to the third size, and pay attention to whether the edge axis is the central line of the wall. Outside of the wall. The size of the floor plan of the reading engineering project, first recognize the plan of the plan, and then understand the layer of the layer. Finally, the installation of hydropower and air -conditioning, equipment process, and second decoration construction map to check whether they are consistent. After being familiar with the plane size of this layer, check whether it meets the requirements of the use. For example, check whether the plane layout of the room is convenient to use, whether the lighting and ventilation are good, etc. When you read the size of the next layer of the plan, check whether there is any inconsistency with the previous layer.
    . Familiar with and reviewing the facade size of the engineering
    The construction map of construction engineering generally has a positive face, a section of the face, and the stairs section. On the plane map, the elevation of this layer is generally marked; the beam table is generally elevated on the surface of the beam; the basic large map, other detailed large sample maps generally also indicate the elevation. Through these construction drawings, the facade size of the project can be grasped. There are three sizes of the positive face. The first is the height of the window sill, the height of the doors and windows, etc. The second is the height of the layer, and it is marked that there is an elevation. The third is the total height. The censorship method is the same as the size of the graphic plane. Whether the first size is added is equal to the second size, and whether the second size is added to the third size. Check whether the elevation of each floor of the vertical diagram is the same as the construction plane map, and then check whether the elevation of the construction is consistent with the height of the clock. The elevation of each floor of the construction map should not be exactly the same as the elevation of the corresponding floor of the plan. Because the floor level of the building's floor is the elevation after the project is completed, the ground level of the center of the center is only the high structure surface standard, which does not include the decoration of the decoration, which does not include the decoration of the decoration, which does not include the decoration of the decoration, which does not include decoration. The height of the surface, the elevation of the graph of the same floor should be a few centimeters high than the elevation of the graph. It is necessary to pay special attention to this point. Because of some construction drawings, the construction icon is highly standard on the corresponding graph. If you do not pay attention, there will be errors during construction.
    Is after being familiar with the facade, the main check the height of the door and window top is consistent with the height of the beam base on the top floor; check whether the horizontal size and elevation of the staircase step is wrong, check whether the underlying size of the beam beam is greater than 2.1 Mi, whether to meet the phenomenon; when the terrace appears in the middle, check whether the terrace is lower than the indoor; check whether the toilet and bathroom floor is a few centimeters lower. Combining the process and the second decoration construction map to check whether the building height meets the functional needs.
    . Check whether there are errors in the place where the errors in the construction drawing
    Fessing the size of the construction project, then check the errors in the place where the error error is made in the construction map. Check the slope of the daughter's wall concrete.
    2, check whether there are beams under the brick wall.
    3, the beam in the structure plane, whether the muscles are all labeled in the beam surface.
    4. Check the height of the main beam lower than the height of the second beam.
    5, beams, boards, columns When span the same and similar, there is a place with a large difference in tendons.
    6. When the beam and the shear wall are arranged in the same line, check the width of the beam exceeding the thickness of the wall.
    7. When the beams are supported by the shear wall and column, check whether the central line of the beam is parallel to or overwhelmed by the axis, and check whether the beam width has a protruding wall or pillar. If there is any, the design should be submitted.
    8. Check whether the minimum spacing of the reinforced steel bars meets the requirements of the construction acceptance specifications. When the project uses a rib threaded steel bar, because the workers are bent with ribless noodles during the steel bar processing, the reinforced diameter value is taken in diameter value. The rib thickness of the raw reinforced bars should be added with a diameter of about 21mm.
    9. Check whether there is a panton on the door of the terrace in the room. Check whether the center of the Rain Puff on the plane of the structure coincides with the central line of Jianshu's door.
    10. When the design requirements are different from the construction acceptance specifications. For example, in the column table, it is often explained that the column tendon can be overlap than 4 on each side. However, the construction acceptance specification requires that the overlapping area of ​​the same section of steel bars must not exceed 50%.
    11, inspection structure description and structure plane, large sample, beam pillar table, and whether there are contradictions with the construction description.
    12, the two -way force of the separate basic system, the force bars along the short -sided direction are generally placed on the long -side stress reinforcement. Check whether the reinforcement in the basic big picture of the construction drawing is wrong.
    5. Examine whether the original construction map is irreplaceable
    This is mainly conducive to the construction of the project, the guarantee of the quality of the building, and the beauty of the project.
    1. From the perspective of conducive to engineering construction, the improvement of construction drawings
    ① The continuous frame beams will have a large adjacent span on the structure of the structure. The reinforcement at the column joint is too dense, and it is difficult to pound the concrete. It can suggest to the designer: the negative tendon can be connected as much as possible.
    ② When the branches are long, the beams with smaller beams with small beams are too dense and cannot be mounded. It can be recommended to keep the span beams under the premise of ensuring the beam. The width is consistent and only adjusts Liang Gao, so that the gluten is connected and poured.
    ③ When the structure is complicated and the structure of a certain part of the structure is difficult to complete at once, it is proposed to the design: how to keep the construction seam of the concrete construction seam.
    ④ After the elevation of the top surface is reduced, if there is a beam in the middle of the terrace, and when the beam is connected to the room, the beam to bend the force tendon is bent or anchoring separately. Please design and deal with it.
    2. From the aspect of the quality of construction projects, the construction drawing opinions are proposed.
    la when designing the plastering of the smallpox is the same as the wall plastering of 1: 1: 6, it is recommended to change the small ceiling plastering to 1: 1: 4 mix the mortar to increase the adhesion.
    ② When the construction drawing is on the elevatorhole pit and the sink of the bathroom, the fire waterproof construction requirements are not indicated, and the cement mortar waterproof layer can be increased on the outer wall of the pits and the inner wall of the Shenchi pool to improve the waterproof quality.
    3. Proposal improvement from the aspect of the aesthetics of the building
    ① If the daughter wall of the terrace appears with the outer window, check whether the height of the daughter's wall is higher than the window sill. It is recommended to design and process it.
    ② Check whether the outer wall decorative surface color line is connected. If it is not connected, it is recommended to go to the corner of the corner; when the exterior wall and the inner wall have no obvious dividing line, ask the design, where the wall decoration extends to the interior wall where to close the mouth to close The most beautiful, whether the top surface and bottom surface of the protruding part of the outer wall decorate the same as the outer wall.
    ③ When the section size of the column is gradually reduced with the rise of the floor, if the column protrudes the outer wall becomes the facade decoration line, in order to make the upper and lower width of the line, it is recommended that the column section of the protruding part will not be reduced.
    ④ When the column is arranged in the corner of the building plane brick wall, the corner of the brick wall is less than 900. If the structural design still uses a square column, it is recommended to change the square to the polygonal column according to the building plane to prevent the column from protruding outside the wall outside the wall. , Affect use and beauty.
    ⑤ When there is a frame column on the left of the elevator lobby (front room) to protrude from 10 to 20 cm of the wall, check whether the right column is prominently the same size. If not, it is recommended to modify it to the left and right symmetry.
    If according to the procedures and ideas that are "familiar with the function of the proposed project, familiarity with the graphic size of the review project, and the facade size inspection of the censorship of the construction map There are plans and comprehensively launching pictures and trials.
    The construction managers should face the owners, supervision, other construction units, local government departments, and even local rogues. Hehe, don't think that everything can be followed, and exchange about how to deal with all parties in the construction management. I believe that friends who have tested the first -level builders this year may still be suspected that the results are not announced. In fact, one of the reasons is that the old project manager who is currently in -job is jointly protested: it is not as good as the students who just graduated. After the 5 -year transition period, the project manager's certificate is invalid and changed to the builder. Can those young people who only do not take the actual practical experience and have no practical experience and have no certain life experience can it do a good job of projects? --- Hehe, it is far away. As a project manager, you can handle and coordinate the various conditions of the internal and external relationships.
    The construction unit must first face the owner. It is our parents and clothing parents, but once the contract is signed, as the project operator, it must be reasonable and not humble. The unit managers can often go to the owner's supervisor to communicate and contact their feelings. While exchanging their views on the project, they should be displayed to the other party as much as possible. Let your boss scold. To show the other party, under the leadership of your subordinates, you have the ability to do more confidence to do the project. There is no trivial matter for the construction unit, which is a big deal for the owners). Do n’t mention it by you. Arrange your business personnel to compete with the owner ’s business personnel. See the position of the post, give him a frame to emphasize the results. For a while, you have to arrange for the owner's relevant department to eat together, communicate, and leave a good impression on the owner's relevant personnel, saying that you have no shelves, and by the way, you can also understand the work of your business personnel on the way. In this case, generally do not call each other's leaders together, sometimes it is counterproductive.
    The supervision should first act in accordance with the rules. If there is always a problem in the project, even if you ask him to drink, I believe that smart supervision will refuse. First of all With the idea of ​​not doing good job, use drinking and giving gifts to settle the idea of ​​supervision to the officer. Of course, if you get the card 100 %, no one can do it. Small problems can be based on the premise of respecting each other and understanding each other. The business personnel of the construction party are competing, but remember to two points: First, they cannot be noisy, do not engage in personal attacks, and do things; the other is to do not think that the supervision will only deduct the specifications, turn the book, and do not understand the construction. Even if the supervision is a graduate student. You must know that you are working in the supervision and management. Even if the supervision is really wrong, do n’t break it in person. If you change your time, it is not too late to explain him in private. Maintaining his face is to maintain the harmonious feelings between you.
    The large engineering projects are often combined by several large construction units. For example, we are working in a project, 3 construction enterprises in Chinese characters, 4 of the metropolis heads, and provincial construction of provincial construction. It is said that 26 construction units are said to strengthen external communication and deal with the relationship between collaborative units in the construction organization.
    Thenien, a historic company, there are always some things, such as the habit and practice. Some of them are the fine traditions of the unit, and some are indeed the weakness of the historical continuity. The habit of my mention is not just the construction process and the operation method of operation. , More about management concepts and management procedures. You need to know that "the stone of other mountains can attack jade", as an enterprise's spokesperson in the project, you must always pay attention to maintaining the corporate image. This is the best respect for himself. A manager who often sends a complaint is that he can't bring a good one. The team is also looking down on.
    sm in daily do not step on each other, especially in front of the owner. To do the same interoperability, as far as possible to help others without endangering the interests of the enterprise. Today, you borrow my delivery pump. Tomorrow I use your big crane. It is necessary to calculate the account, but don't be suspected: "I have so much money, I don't need to use it." You must know that creating a good external environment is your primary condition for your project.

  2. When you do n’t understand all the running sites, ask the construction industry to read the professional books that are mixed up with age. What are you learning? It is important to prepare the second -level construction engineer for two years. This certificate is very important to check that your salary for half a year and the transition from the construction worker to the project manager

  3. Which aspect of the garden industry and civil construction landscape design environment art, etc., clarify that this is what I know is the assistant engineer at present --- second -level builder --- engineer --- first -level builder Assistant Engineer -Junior Engineer -Elege Engineer -Senior Engineer. What structural engineers and cost engineers can be tested in other structural engineers and cost engineers of the conflict

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